Итальянская мода

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Куфья, скуфья: чепец из льна или шелка, плотно облегающий голову и уши, зачастую завязывающийся под подбородком.Иногда носился под другими головными уборами или служил ночным головным убором.


Бальцо: объемный, высокий головной убор оруглой формы,одет так, чтобы оставался открытым лоб, тем самым делая его более высоким. Поверх бальцо могло носится покрывало из дорогого тонкого льна или шелка.Иногда бальцо украшали лентами,косами из желтого шелка, имитирующими настоящие волосы или же оплетали натуральными косами.Особенно популярен был в 1-ю половину Кватроченто.

http://www.sword.net/jessica/firenze/Early15thCenturyBalzo.pdf http://home.earthlink.net/~lizjones429/balzo-new.htm

Корна: дословно - рога.Рогатый головной убор, вошедший в моду в середине 15в. Заимствован из Северной Европы.

Венец

BERRETTA (M/F). Any form of cap or hat of rounded or semi-conical shape. Usually fitting closely to the head, the berretta could be brimless, or turned up around the edges. The woman's berretta was rather like a coif (cuffia) and was often decorated with embroidery, or was made of a silk textile such as damask or satin. The man's berretta could also be made of a similar silk textile; but it was made usually of felted woollen cloth, and was frequently worn with a hat bad (fermaglio). There were some berretta of distinguishing shapes, e.g. berretta ducale or the berretta alla capitanesca. (Herald)

GHIRLANDA/GRILLANDA (F). Literally, a garland, which is worn as a headdress by women. It often takes the form of a padded roll, covered with some elaborate textile. Garlands of flowers or grass are worn by the young innocent beauties of whom the poets sing. Sometimes the ghirlanda is covered with gems or with feathers. A decree published in Siena in 1412 forbade all embroidery and pearls, except for a grillanda on the head worth a maximum of 25 gold florins (Giuliani). (Herald)

LENZA. A ribbon or braid tied round the crown of the head, and often decorated with a jewel over the forehead. (Herald)

BENDA/BINDA (F). A length of silk or linen veil used for covering, wrapping round or intertwining with the hair.

MAZZOCCHIO (M/F). A stuffed roll covered with fabric which is worn on the head. It forms the basis of the men's cappuccio, being the part of the hood which fits round the crown. By women, the mazzocchio is pinned to the hair, giving slight height and a rounded shape to the veil worn on top. The mazzocchio continued to be worn by veiled older women long after new taller fashions in headdresses had been introduced to the fashionable younger women. (Herald)

PANNICELLI. Cloths of linen, usually worn by women over the head and/or shoulders. (Herald)

SCIUGATOI. Alternate spelling of Herald's "sciogatoio/asciugatoio", and in most cases means the plain white veil that an older woman wore over her head. It could also mean a hand-towel. In modern times, means something like a nun's wimple that covers the head and neck and part of the shoulders. (Guasti 611) (Florio 478)

SELLA (F). A saddle-shaped headdress worn by women in the middle of the century, probably influenced by fashions from north of the Alps. Like the corna, the sella usually suspends a fine veil of silk. (Herald)

TENIA. A head-band, fillet, hair-lace, or the knot for fastening the fillet. A woolen turban-like hat worn by either sex. (Florio 557)

TRINZALE (F). A piece of fine cloth covering the hair which, in the case of Bianca Maria Sforza, covers both the back of her head and the long roll of hair (coazzone) hanging down her back, tied with ribbons and pearls. (Herald)

COAZZONE (F). A broad plait or roll of hair, often decorated with ribbon or braiding, which hangs down the back. It is sometimes worn with a trinzale.

VESPAIO (F). Literally translated, it means a wasp's nest. In fact, it was a netted headdress worn by women, often made of strings of pearls. (Herald)

FRENELLO (F). A hair ornament -- a string of pearls, which is entwined around the twists of real and false hair and fine silk veil.

RETA. A knotted net of silk or gold threads, which often incorporated pearls and sometimes other gems, worn over the hair.

SCIOGATOIO/ASCIUGATOIO. A towel; it has as many meanings as it does uses. As well as being a hand towel, it could be a cloth to cover a chest, or a pillowslip; it was equally commonly applied to the linen veil, worn over the head, usually by older women and widows. These sciogatoi look rather practical, plain and dense, compared with some of the light silk veils worn by younger Italian women, or in Spain; the contrast is well described in a letter to Alessandra Macinghi Strozzi from one of her sons (Strozzi, op.cit., p. 29). The sciugatoio was attached by means of hairpins and ribbons, in whatever manner best suited the wearer, and then fell down over the neck and shoulders. Certain religious orders, and possibly some widows, drew the towel under the chin, thus completely covering the neck.

FERMAGLIO. A brooch or hat badge, also known as a brochetta or medaglio depending on its form and use. A versatile piece of jewelry worn on the shoulder, on a headdress, the sleeve, or the bodice of a garment. Invariably made on a large scale, the fermaglio was effective from a distance. Some brooches bore figures or emblems in relief, sometimes with heraldic significance.

PANNICELLI. Cloths of linen, usually worn by women over the head and/or shoulders.

SCIOGATOIO/ASCIUGATOIO. A towel; it has as many meanings as it does uses. As well as being a hand towel, it could be a cloth to cover a chest, or a pillowslip; it was equally commonly applied to the linen veil, worn over the head, usually by older women and widows. These sciogatoi look rather practical, plain and dense, compared with some of the light silk veils worn by younger Italian women, or in Spain; the contrast is well described in a letter to Alessandra Macinghi Strozzi from one of her sons (Strozzi, op.cit., p. 29). The sciugatoio was attached by means of hairpins and ribbons, in whatever manner best suited the wearer, and then fell down over the neck and shoulders. Certain religious orders, and possibly some widows, drew the towel under the chin, thus completely covering the neck.

TREMOLANTI. Small pieces of decorative metalwork, often incorporated with fringing and chains, e.g. on headdresses.